Objective-To evaluate the precision and accuracy of assessing bone mineral density (BMD) by use of mean gray value (MGV) on digitalized and digital images of conventional and digital radiographs, respectively, of ex vivo bovine and equine bone specimens in relation to the gold-standard technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Sample-Left and right metatarsal bones from 11 beef cattle and right femurs from 2 horses. Procedures-Bovine specimens were imaged by use of conventional radiography, whereas equine specimens were imaged by use of computed radiography (digital radiography).
Accuracy and precision of computer-assisted analysis of bone density via conventional and digital radiography in relation to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Pelvic Limb Kinematics and Surface Electromyography of the Vastus Lateralis, Biceps Femoris, and Gluteus Medius Muscle in Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis.
Journal: Vet Surg
To measure the activity patterns of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris, and gluteus medius (GM) muscle at a walk in sound dogs and dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA).
Dogs (n = 10) with hip OA and 7 clinically sound dogs.
Self-reflective markers and a high-speed camera system were used for kinematic measurements and surface electrodes were used for the electromyography (EMG). All measurements were performed on walking dogs. Maximal, minimal, and mean values of the joint angles were evaluated, together with the surface EMG data.
Computer-assisted gait analysis of the dog: Comparison of two surgical techniques for the ruptured cranial cruciate ligament.
Objectives: To compare the improvement in degree of lameness following surgical repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs using computer-assisted gait analysis. Methods: Two groups of 14 dogs were used. One group was treated by a capsular-fascial imbrication method, and the other group by tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). All dogs underwent gait analysis prior to surgery, as well as at four days, four weeks, and four months after surgery.
Effects of trial repetition, limb side, intraday and inter-week variation on vertical and craniocaudal ground reaction forces in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.
Objectives: To document the contributions of trial repetition, limb side, and intraday and inter-week measurements on variation in vertical and craniocaudal ground reaction force data. Methods: Following habituation, force and time data were collected for all four limbs of seven Labrador Retrievers during sets of five valid trot trials. Each set was performed twice daily (morning and afternoon), every seven days for three consecutive weeks.
Journal: Vet J
The objective of this study was to develop a surgical technique for sensory denervation of the canine elbow joint and to assess the effects of denervation on limb function in normal dogs. Twenty cadavers (40 elbows) were used to characterize innervation and design the surgical protocol which was tested in 13 cadavers (26 normal elbows). The effect of denervation on limb function was assessed in vivo in four dogs with the elbow randomly selected for the procedure.
To determine whether the canine pelvic limb can be considered a linkage of rigid bodies during kinematic analysis.
Use of commercially available foam pipe insulation as a protective device for wounds over the elbow joint area in five dogs.
Case Description-4 large-breed dogs were referred because of nonhealing skin wounds involving the elbow joint area of several weeks to months in duration. One additional large-breed dog was evaluated because of a draining abscess with overlying skin necrosis. Clinical Findings-Previous attempts at closing each wound over the elbow joint area had been unsuccessful. At the time of hospital admission, open wounds had variable degrees of bacterial contamination and infection.
Comparison of temporospatial and kinetic variables of walking in small and large dogs on a pressure-sensing walkway.
Objective-To compare temporospatial variables (TSVs) and kinetic variables (KVs) for fore-limbs and hind limbs of small and large dogs of various breeds during walking and to determine associations among body weight (BW), TSVs, and KVs in these groups. Animals-12 adult dogs with no evidence of lameness. Procedures-Dogs (grouped according to BW as small [< 10 kg; n = 6] or large [> 25 kg; 6]) were walked in a straight line at their preferred velocity on a wooden platform with an embedded pressure-sensing walkway.
Evaluation of transplantation of autologous bone marrow stromal cells into the cerebrospinal fluid for treatment of chronic spinal cord injury in dogs.
Objective-To evaluate effects of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into the CSF for the treatment of chronic spinal cord injury in dogs that had not responded by 1 month after decompressive surgery. Animals-23 dogs. Procedures-Dogs with paraplegia and loss of nociception in the pelvic limbs for at least 1 month after decompressive surgery were assigned to transplantation or control groups. Dogs in the transplantation group received BMSCs injected into the CSF 1 to 3 months after decompressive surgery. Dogs in the control group did not receive additional treatments.
Journal: Vet Surg
Objective: Evaluate the effect of marker placement on kinematics of the canine stifle in 3 distinct hindlimb models. Study Design: In vivo biomechanical study. Animals: Normal adult mixed-breed dogs (n=5). Methods: Ten retroreflective markers were affixed to the skin on the right rear leg of each dog to establish normal stifle kinematics. Four additional markers were placed around the greater trochanter (GT), 2 cm cranial, caudal, dorsal, and ventral to evaluate single marker placement variability on kinematic model data. Dogs were walked and trotted 5 times through the calibrated space.