Authors: Rick Beishuizen, Tjarda E Reints Bok, Michelle Teunissen, Albert J van der Veen, Kaj S Emanuel, Marianna A Tryfonidou, Bjorn P Meij

Objective: To evaluate the change in ex vivo biomechanical properties of the canine cervical spine, due to an intervertebral cage, both as a stand-alone device and in combination with plates.

Study design: Experimental ex vivo study.

Animals: Cervical spinal segments (C5-C7) from eight canine cadavers.

Category: Spine
Authors: Stephen P Spence, Sarah K Israel

Objective: To compare the incidence of MRI lesions between dogs weighing < 15 kg (33 lb) and dogs weighing ≥ 15 kg.

Animals: 494 dogs with clinical signs of thoracolumbar disease.

Category: Spine
Authors: Johanna K Wolf, Peter J Early, Antonio Pozzi, Alessio Vigani

Case description: 4 dogs, 7.5 to 10 years of age, were presented for evaluation of signs of chronic cervical pain and forelimb lameness secondary to cervical foraminal intervertebral disk protrusion (IVDP). All dogs were refractory to ≥ 2 weeks of conservative management including strict rest and pain management with anti-inflammatory drugs, methocarbamol, and gabapentin.

Category: Spine
Authors: Claudia Zindl, Noel Fitzpatrick, Alan S Litsky, Matthew J Allen

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical behaviour of a novel distraction-fusion system, consisting of an intervertebral distraction screw, pedicle locking screws and connecting rods, in the canine caudal cervical spine.

Category: Spine
Authors: S Kerr, A H Crawford, S De Decker

Objectives: To identify the prevalence of recurrence of clinical signs after initial successful decompressive surgery for intervertebral disc extrusion in French bulldogs.

Category: Spine
Authors: Luca Bresciani, Raquel Trevail, Stephen Clarke, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Sebastien Behr, Kali Lazzerini, Josep Brocal, Bill Oxley, Jonathan Pink, Roberto José-López

Objective: To describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and outcome of dogs treated surgically for lumbosacral intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE).

Study design: Retrospective study.

Animals: Thirteen dogs.

Category: Spine
Authors: Christian W Woelfel, James B Robertson, Chris L Mariani, Karen R Muñana, Peter J Early, Natasha J Olby

Objective: To evaluate outcomes and prognostic factors after decompressive hemilaminectomy in paraplegic medium to large breed dogs with extensive epidural hemorrhage (DEEH) and thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion (TL-IVDE).

Study design: Retrospective, cohort, descriptive study.

Animals: Fifty-nine client-owned dogs.

Category: Spine
Authors: Ana Cloquell, Rocio Orlandi, Fernando Vázquez, Isidro Mateo

The objective of this study is to suggest clinical and subclinical atlantoaxial (AA) instability as a cause for dorsal AA ligament hypertrophy responsible for clinical signs in dogs with dens abnormalities.

Category: Spine
Authors: Naomi N Lee, Jacob S Kramer, Aaron M Stoker, Chantelle C Bozynski, Cristi R Cook, James T Stannard, Theodore J Choma, James L Cook

Neck and low back pain are common among the adult human population and impose large social and economic burdens on health care and quality of life. Spine-related disorders are also significant health concerns for canine companions with etiopathogeneses, clinical presentations, and diagnostic and therapeutic options that are very similar to their human counterparts.

Category: Spine
Authors: Christopher L Mariani, Joshua A Zlotnick, Ola Harrysson, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Kristen Malinak, Ashley Gavitt, Julien Guevar

Objective: To assess the accuracy of three-dimensionally (3-D) printed drill guides in constraining the trajectory of drill tracts for implants in canine thoracic vertebrae.

Study design: Experimental ex vivo study.

Sample population: Five canine thoracic vertebral column specimens.

Category: Spine