Authors: Peter J Welsh, Devin J Thompson, Yi Chen, Lloyd V Smith, Adam M Nylund

Objective: To determine whether one larger or two smaller diameter pins used for tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture (TTAF) stabilization provides greater axial tensile strength and stiffness when subjected to monotonic mechanical load to failure in normal skeletally mature canine cadavers.

Study design: Paired ex vivo biomechanical study.

Sample population: Eleven pairs of adult cadaveric dog tibias.

Authors: Benjamin Husi, Brian Park, Marina Lampart, Richard Evans, Antonio Pozzi

Objectives: To investigate stifle kinematics and kinetics following TPLO and TPLO combined with an extra-articular lateral augmentation (TPLO-IB) during the tibial compression test (TCT) and the tibial pivot compression test (TPT), applied with an external (eTPT) and an internal moment (iTPT).

Study design: Experimental ex vivo study.

Sample population: Ten cadaveric hindlimbs of dogs weighing 23-40 kg.

Category: Biomechanics - Stifle
Authors: Gabriella S Sandberg, Bryan T Torres, Steven C Budsberg

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare a Joint Coordinate System (JCS) three-dimensional (3D) kinematic model of the canine forelimb with more widely used linear (LIN) and segmental (SEG) 2D models.

Study design: It was an in vivo biomechanical study.

Animals: Normal adult mixed breed dogs were used in this study (n = 6).

Category: Biomechanics
Authors: Noortje Visser, Elisa Rezaie, Alexandra Ducharme, Alexander Y Shin, Allen T Bishop

Cryopreserved bone allografts(CBA) are susceptible to infection, nonunion, and late stress fracture. Although surgical revascularization by intramedullary implantation of an arteriovenous bundle (AV bundle) generates a neoangiogenic blood supply, there is potential for vascular ingrowth-mediated bone resorption to weaken the graft.

Category: Biomechanics - Tibia
Authors: Sarah A. Salyer, Jonathan T. Suber, Lucia M. Melara, Nina R. Kieves

OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical strength of 4.75- and 5.5-mm suture anchors when pulled at 45° or 90° angles using 1 versus 2 strands of suture.

SAMPLE 48 synthetic bone block samples.

PROCEDURES Anchors were inserted into synthetic bone blocks and tested for pullout in 4 configurations (1 suture strand vs 2 strands and 45° vs 90° insertion angle) for a total of 8 groups with 6 samples each. A 3-way ANOVA was used to compare effect of anchor size, strand amount, and angle of pull.

Category: Biomechanics
Authors: Anastasia M Olsen, Nicolaas E Lambrechts, Hsin-Yi Weng, Kristine A Kazmierczak, Felix M Duerr, Gert J Breur

Objective: To use the small data approach of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate the transferability of reference intervals (RIs) for kinetic variables obtained with instrumented gait analysis (IGA) in dogs from an RI-originator laboratory to another laboratory that used the same data acquisition and analytic techniques for IGA in walking dogs.

Animals: 27 adult client-owned dogs without evidence of lameness.

Category: Biomechanics
Authors: Daniel J Duffy, Chiara P Curcillo, Yi-Jen Chang, Lewis Gaffney, Matthew B Fisher, George E Moore

Objective: To evaluate the effect of an autologous flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) graft to augment a three-loop pulley (3LP) core repair in a canine cadaveric gastrocnemius tendon (GT) laceration model.

Study design: Ex vivo, biomechanical study.

Sample population: Twenty-six canine cadaveric hind limbs.

Authors: Milgram J, Stockman J, Segev G, Meiner Y, Shipov A

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the palmar radiocarpal ligament and the palmar ulnocarpal ligament to canine antebrachiocarpal joint stability.

Authors: Zann GJ, Kim SE, Tinga S, Pozzi A, Banks SA

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate patellofemoral (PF) kinematics during walking in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency treated by tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study.

Authors: Mejia S, Iodence A, Griffin L, Withrow S, Puttlitz C, Salman M, Seguin B

OBJECTIVE: To compare the geometrical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal radius between Saint Bernard and other giant breed dogs.