Knee

Authors: Moles AD, Hill TP, Glyde M.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To report the surgical findings and early post-operative complications of triple tibial osteotomy (TTO) for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disruption in dogs. Methods: Clinical records of 84 dogs (97 stifles) that had TTO procedures were reviewed. Surgical findings and postoperative complications were assessed. A complication was defined as any undesirable outcome resulting from TTO that required further diagnostic investigation or surgical treatment. Results: Mean tibial wedge angle was 13.6 degrees (range 10-20).

Category: Knee
Authors: Arnault F, Cauvin E, Viguier E, Kraft E, Sonet J, Carozzo C.
Journal: VCOT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis of lesions in the canine stifle associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Thirteen dogs that had a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture were included in this prospective clinical study. Two ultrasonographers who were unaware of specific historical and clinical data performed the sonography with a high frequency (8-16 MHz) linear transducer.

Category: Imaging - Knee
Authors: Kuan S, Smith B, Black A.
Journal: Aust Vet J

BACKGROUND: Tibial wedge ostectomy (TWO) is a surgical procedure that aims to give functional stability during weight-bearing in a hindlimb with cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, by reducing the slope of the tibial plateau angle. PROCEDURE: Advantages of the TWO surgery are that it does not require dedicated equipment and can be performed in young dogs prior to closure of the physis. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and the potential for complications is high.

Category: Knee
Authors: O'Brien CS, Martinez SA.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential iatrogenic medial meniscal (MM) damage during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and to establish a safe zone (SZ) for hypodermic needle (HN) identification of the medial aspect of the stifle joint. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. ANIMALS: Cadaveric canine stifles (n=40). METHODS: HN (20 or 25 G) were inserted through the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the femorotibial joint and through the SZ insertion points. The medial meniscus was inspected for iatrogenic damage.

Category: Knee
Authors: Moles A, Glyde M.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To investigate arterial vascularity at the level of the proximal tibia as a potential source of the severe intra-operative haemorrhage, which has been previously reported as a complication during tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) and triple tibial osteotomy (TTO) surgeries in dogs. To devise a surgical approach for the management of this complication. Method: Eight pelvic limbs from five canine cadavers were dissected and the vascular structures at the level of the proximal tibia were identified and photographed.

Category: Knee
Authors: Oshin A, Griffon D, Lemberger K, Naughton J, Barger A.
Journal: JAAHA

A 4-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of chronic left hind-limb lameness. Lytic lesions were observed in the left patella on radiographs of the stifle. A biopsy of the patella led to a histopathological diagnosis of blastomycosis. Surgical debridement followed by a 90-day course of itraconazole and physical rehabilitation resolved the clinical signs and stopped the progression of radiographic lesions. Blastomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for stifle joint lameness with lytic lesions in the patella.

Category: Biologics - Knee
Authors: Barrett E, Barr F, Owen M, Bradley K.
Journal: JSAP

OBJECTIVES: To make an objective assessment of the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of meniscal damage and cranial cruciate ligament disease in the canine stifle by comparing magnetic resonance imaging findings with surgical findings. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images of 18 stifles from 18 dogs which had undergone magnetic resonance imaging for the investigation of stifle disease were reviewed. For every stifle, the menisci and cranial cruciate ligaments were assessed according to predetermined criteria.

Category: Imaging - Knee
Authors: Thieman KM, Pozzi A, Ling HY, Lewis DD, Horodyski M.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomechanical effects of 5 types of meniscal lesions on contact mechanics in the canine stifle. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. ANIMALS: Cadaveric canine stifles (n=12 pair). METHODS: Medial meniscal lesions (radial, vertical longitudinal, nonreducible bucket handle, flap, and complex tears) were simulated in cadaveric stifles. A contact map was recorded from each tear type and contact area (CA) and peak contact pressure (PCP) from each tear type were compared.

Category: Knee
Authors: Böttcher P, Zeissler M, Maierl J, Grevel V, Oechtering G.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE: To characterize donor and recipient sites for autologous osteochondral transplantation in the canine stifle joint with respect to split-line pattern and cartilage thickness. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study. Sample Population- Stifle joints (n=30) of dogs >20 kg. METHODS: Collagen network orientation of the hyaline cartilage coverage of the distal femur was assessed using split-line technique (n=10).

Authors: Erne JB, Goring RL, Kennedy FA, Schoenborn WC.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To determine the prevalence of lymphoplasmacytic synovitis (LPS) in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and compare clinical, radiographic, cytologic, and histologic findings in dogs with and without LPS. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-110 dogs with naturally occurring CCL rupture. Procedures-Histologic examination of synovial biopsy specimens obtained at the time of surgical treatment was used to identify dogs with LPS. Clinical, radiographic, cytologic, and histologic findings were compared between dogs with and without LPS.