Ruminant

Authors: J. R. Field (1), M. McGee (2), R. Stanley (1), G. Ruthenbeck, T. Papadimitrakis, A. Zannettino, S. Gronthos, S. Itescu
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Introduction: Synthetic void-fillers offer an alternative to autograft or allograft bone in the repair of segmental defects. However, the reparative process is delayed as only osteoconductive elements are present. The inclusion of pluripotential cells may resolve this limitation, and the use of allogeneic tissue provides the opportunity for an off-the-shelf remedy. The current study evaluated the utilisation of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) for the repair of an ovine critical-size tibial segmental defect.

Category: Ruminant - Stem cells
Authors: N.J. Evans, R.W. Blowey, D. Timofte, D.R. Isherwood, J.M. Brown, R. Murray, R.J. Paton, S.D. Carter
Journal: Veterinary Record

This study describes the association between bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) treponemes and three ‘non-healing’ bovine hoof horn lesions, namely, ‘toe necrosis’ (TN), ‘non-healing white line disease’ (nhWLD) and ‘non-healing sole ulcer’ (nhSU), which are disorders that involve penetration through the horn capsule to involve the corium.

Category: Podiatry - Ruminant
Authors: K. A. Peake, A. M. Biggs, C. M. Argo, R. F. Smith,R. M. Christley, J. E. Routly, H. Dobson,
Journal: Veterinary Record

A total of 318 cows were monitored in the pre-breeding postpartum period for the presence of three production stressors: lameness, subclinical mastitis and body condition score (BCS) loss. For each stressor, cows were given a classification of severely, moderately or non-affected based on mobility scores, somatic cell counts and BCS change.

Category: Miscellaneous - Ruminant
Authors: Sylvain Nichols DMV, MS, Diplomate ACVS, Susan R. Vogel DVM, Hélène Lardé DMV
Journal: Veterinary Surgery

Objective: To report lumbar vertebrae transverse process fracture repair using a narrow 3.5 mm limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) in an adult dairy cow.

Study Design: Case report.

Animals: A 3-year-old Holstein cow.

Methods: Under general anesthesia, fractured left transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae 2–4 were repaired using internal fixation. A narrow 3.5 mm LC-DCP was contoured and secured to the spinous process and the transverse process of each fractured vertebra.

Authors: Sabrina H. Brounts DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVS, Molly Racette, Peter Muir BVSc, MVetClinStud, PhD, Diplomate ACVS & ECVS
Journal: Veterinary Surgery

Objective: To determine outcome after repair of long bone fractures in llamas and alpacas.

Study Design: Case series.

Animals: Llamas (n=11) and alpacas (8).

Methods: Medical records (1998–2008) of camelids with long bone fractures were reviewed for history, repair method, and complications. Outcome was also assessed by owner telephone questionnaire.

Authors: K. Taguchi, DVM, PhD, S. Nakamura, DVM and K. Hyakutake, DVM
Journal: Veterinary Record

Two cases of extensor process fracture of the distal phalanx in the forelimb in a Holstein bull and a lactating Holstein cow are described. Each animal showed acute onset of severe lameness with a gait characterised by lengthening of the cranial phase of the step in order to place more weight on the heel. Mild swelling and a localised pain response upon application of deep pressure above the coronet were also observed.

Category: Miscellaneous - Ruminant
Authors: T. Schmid, M. Hilbe, S. Ohlert, K. Nuss
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

The clinical, radiographical and histo- pathological findings of a chondrosarcoma in the humerus of a goat are discussed. An 11-year-old female Saanen goat was admitted for evaluation of chronic, progressive left forelimb lameness. Clinical examination revealed signs of pain in the shoulder region. Radiographs of the scapulohumeral joint showed a large lytic lesion of the proximal third of the humerus with cortical destruction, intralesional calcification and marked periosteal reactions.

Category: Miscellaneous - Ruminant
Authors: Hari Prasad Aithal, MVSc, PhD 1 , Prakash Kinjavdekar, MVSc, PhD 1 , Amarpal MVSc, PhD 1 , Abhijit Motiram Pawde, MVSc, PhD 1 , Gaj Raj Singh, MVSc, PhD 1 , and Harish Chandra Setia, MSc 1
Journal: Veterinary Surgery

Objectives: To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF).

Study Design: Clinical report.

Animals: Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg).

Methods: Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf.

Authors: P.-Y. Mulon (1)
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

A four-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for evaluation of an angular limb deviation. Upon initial presentation, the heifer was not clinically lame. An external rotation of 90° of the fetlock was observed in the left forelimb. Radiographs identified a healing closed spiral fracture of the third and fourth metacarpal bones, with a 90° external torsion. A mid-metacarpal bone transverse osteotomy was performed after insertion of transcortical pins in the distal and proximal part of the third and fourth metacarpal bones and in the distal radius.

Authors: Shannon K. Reed, DVM, MS; Stacy A. Semevolos, DVM, MS
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine the molecular and histologic characteristics of hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in adult llamas.

Animals—12 adult llamas (6 with bilateral hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints [affected] and 6 age- and sex-matched clinically normal control llamas).

Category: Miscellaneous - Ruminant