Osteoarthritis

Authors: James L. Carmalt, MA, VetMB, MVetSC, DABVP, DACVS; Chris D. Bell, DVM, MVetSC, DACVS; Luca Panizzi, DVM, MVetSC, DACVS; Ryan R. E. Wolker, DVM, MVetSC, DACVS; Joel L. Lanovaz, PhD; José L. Bracamonte, DVM, DVSC, DACVS; David G. Wilson, DVM, DACVS
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To assess the safety and efficacy of alcohol-facilitated ankylosis of the distal intertarsal (DIT) and tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints in horses with osteoarthritis (bone spavin).

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—21 horses with DIT or TMT joint-associated hind limb lameness and 5 nonlame horses.

Authors: T. H. HRAHA, K. M. DOREMUS, C. W. McILWRAITH, D. D. FRISBIE
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and debilitating conditions affecting the horse. Autologous conditioned serum (ACS), commercially available as IRAP and IRAP II, is a recently developed treatment for OA in which plasma is prepared from venous blood by incubation with glass beads for 24 h. This product has been shown to increase anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in human blood. However, data for equine ACS preparations are lacking.

Authors: Chris E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; David D. Frisbie, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD, DSc
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan treatment (PSGAGT) on subchondral bone (SCB), serum biomarkers, and synovial fluid biomarkers in horses with induced osteoarthritis.

Animals—24 healthy 2- to 3-year-old horses.

Category: Equine - Osteoarthritis
Authors: P. René van Weeren DVM, PhD, Janny C. de Grauw DVM
Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America Equine Practice

This article focuses on pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). It first describes the basic biology of articular cartilage and other joint structures and the defining features of the osteoarthritic disease process. Subsequently, the possible origins of pain in OA are discussed before embarking on how to manage this clinical entity. The emphasis is on the pharmacologic management of joint pain, and attention is paid to systemic therapeutic strategies as well as to local (intra-articular) treatment modalities.

Category: Equine - Osteoarthritis
Authors: Richelle H. Neundorf, MSc; Mark B. Lowerison, BSc; Antonio M. Cruz, DVM, MVM, MSc, DrMedVet; Jeff J. Thomason, PhD; Beverley J. McEwen, DVM, PhD; Mark B. Hurtig, DVM, MVSc
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine the prevalence and severity of osteoarthritis in the metacarpophalangeal joints of Thoroughbred racehorses via development and validation of a quantitative macroscopic evaluation system. Sample Population—Metacarpophalangeal joints from 50 Thoroughbred racehorses. Procedures—Joints were collected from horses that died or were euthanized within 60 days of racing. Metacarpophalangeal joints were assessed for osteoarthritic degeneration by use of macroscopic and histologic scoring systems, polarized light microscopy, and cartilage biochemical analysis.

Authors: J. L. KAMM, A. J. NIXON, T. H. WITTE
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Understanding the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes during osteoarthritis progression should help to identify the major mediators of the disease. Objective: To compare the cytokine and anabolic marker concentrations in synovium, synovial fluid and cartilage between normal and osteoarthritic joints. Methods: Carpi from horses age 2–11 years were used. Tissues were harvested at the time of surgery or euthanasia, and RNA was isolated for RT-PCR analysis.

Category: Equine - Osteoarthritis
Authors: J. L. KAMM, A. J. NIXON, T. H. WITTE
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Understanding the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes during osteoarthritis progression should help to identify the major mediators of the disease.

Objective: To compare the cytokine and anabolic marker concentrations in synovium, synovial fluid and cartilage between normal and osteoarthritic joints.

Category: Equine - Osteoarthritis
Authors: A. FAIRBURN, S. DYSON, R. MURRAY
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Objectives: To verify the sites of insertion of the dorsal metatarsal ligament and the tendons of tibialis cranialis and fibularis tertius in order to determine if periarticular osteophytes and entheseophytes could be differentiated radiologically; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of osseous spurs on the dorsoproximal aspect of MtIII.

Category: Bone - Equine - Osteoarthritis
Authors: C. W. McILWRAITH
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Intra-articular use of corticosteroids has become a recent focus (or re-focus) of attention in the Thoroughbred racing industry. This manuscript reviews the clinical use and scientific basis of intra-articular corticosteroid administration including catastrophic injury, articular cartilage degradation and the development of osteoarthritis (OA), as well as the timing of injection relative to racing.

Authors: M. R. GOUGH*, D. THIBAUD † and R. K. W. SMITH ‡
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Tiludronate regulates bone remodelling through a decrease of the resorptive process and should therefore ameliorate the remodelling processes active in osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints ('bone spavin') and alleviate pain associated with abnormal bone lysis.

Objective: To confirm the efficacy of tiludronate, administered as a single infusion at a dose of 1 mg/kg bwt, in the treatment of bone spavin in the horse.