Meniscal Load and Load Distribution in the Canine Stifle after Modified Tibial Tuberosity Advancement with 9 mm and 12 mm Cranialization of the Tibial Tuberosity in Different Standing Angles

Johannes Maximilian Schmutterer, Peter Augat, Markus Greinwald, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2023 May 9. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-57046. v

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetic and kinematic changes in the stifle after a modified tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with 9 and 12 mm cranialization of the tibial tuberosity in different standing angles.

Study design: Biomechanical ex vivo study using seven unpaired canine cadaver hindlimbs. Sham TTA surgery was performed. Motion sensors were fixed to the tibia and the femur for kinematic data acquisition. Pressure mapping sensors were placed between femur and both menisci. Thirty percent body weight was applied to the limbs with the stifle in 135 or 145 degrees of extension. Each knee was tested in 135 degrees with intact cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) and deficient CCL with 12 mm cranialization of the tibial tuberosity in 135 and 145 degrees of extension. The last two tests were repeated with 9 mm.

Results: Transection of the CCL altered kinematics and kinetics. Tibial tuberosity advancement with 12 mm cranialization sufficiently restored stifle kinematics in 135 and 145 degrees but 9 mm TTA failed to do so in 135 degrees. The same effects were seen for internal rotation of the tibia. After TTA, a significant reduction in the force acting on both menisci was detected.

Conclusions: Tibial tuberosity advancement could restore stifle kinematics and meniscal kinetics after transection of the CCL ex vivo in the present study. Tibial tuberosity advancement reduced the contact force ratio on both menisci significantly. No changes of peak pressure and peak pressure location occurred following TTA under any of the tested experimental settings. Increased stifle extension (145 degrees) might lead to more stability, contradictory to biomechanical theory.