Knee

Authors: PAUL A. KLOC II, DVM, MA 1 , MICHAEL P. KOWALESKI, DVM, Diplomate ACVS 2 , ALAN S. LITSKY, MD, ScD 2 , NANCY O. BROWN, VMD, Diplomate ACVS and ACVIM (Oncology) 1 , and KENNETH A. JOHNSON, MVSc, PhD, Diplomate ACVS and ECVS 2
Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT
Objective—To compare the axial compression stiffness of osteotomized canine tibiae stabilized with Slocum, Securos, or Synthes plates after a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) procedure.
Study Design—In vitro, paired comparison of cadaveric tibial constructs subjected to mechanical testing under an axial load.
Sample Population—Canine tibiae (n=16 pairs) from skeletally mature male and female dogs of various breeds (18–55 kg).

Authors: KEI HAYASHI, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS 1,2 , SUN-YOUNG KIM, DVM, MS 1,2 , JENNIFER L. LANSDOWNE, DVM, MSc 1,2 , AMY KAPATKIN, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVS 1,2 , and LOÏC M. DÉJARDIN, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVS 1,2
Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT
Objective—To determine the clinical value of a novel osteoarthritis (OA) biomarker in detecting canine cruciate disease.
Study Design—Cross sectional clinical study.
Animals—Dogs (n=22) with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and 12 control dogs.
Methods—Concentrations of collagenase-generated cleavage epitope of type II collagen (Col2-3/4Clong mono, or C2C) in serum, urine, and joint fluid were compared between a group of dogs with CCL rupture and a control group. Correlation of C2C concentrations to the clinical stage of stifle OA was also evaluated.

Authors: ANTONIO POZZI, DMV, MS, Diplomate ACVS 1 , BLAKE EASON HILDRETH, III, DVM 1 , and PAIVI J. RAJALA-SCHULTZ, DVM, PhD 1
Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of arthroscopy and arthrotomy for diagnosis of medial meniscal pathology and to evaluate the diagnostic value of medial meniscal probing. Study Design—Ex vivo study. Animals—Cadaveric canine stifle joints (n=30). Methods—Stifle joints were assigned to either a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficient or intact group. Within each stifle joint, no medial meniscal tear, a peripheral detachment, or 1 of 3 variants of vertical longitudinal tears of the medial meniscus were created.

Category: Arthroscopy - Knee
Authors: Venable RO, Stoker AM, Cook CR, Cockrell MK, Cook JL.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To determine the quantity (concentration) and quality (molecular weight) of synovial fluid hyaluronan with respect to presence and severity of osteoarthritis in stifle joints of dogs. Animals-21 purpose-bred dogs and 6 clinically affected large-breed dogs (cranial cruciate ligament [CrCL] disease with secondary osteoarthritis).

Authors: Wallace AM, Cutting ED, Sutcliffe MP, Langley-Hobbs SJ.
Journal: VCOT

Six different double loop configurations which could be applied to the lateral fabella suture (LFS) technique were subjected to in vitro mechanical testing. Three double loop, single strand and three double loop, double strand configurations were tested. The strongest configuration, with a significantly higher mean ultimate load and load at yield, was the interlocking loop configuration. This is a novel configuration which has not previously been reported. The three double loop, single strand configurations all had higher mean ultimate loads than the double loop, double strand configurations.

Authors: Kipfer NM, Tepic S, Damur DM, Guerrero T, Hässig M, Montavon PM.
Journal: VCOT

OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study compares the femorotibial shear in canine stifles with intact and transected cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL), before and after tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) by measuring the distance between origin and insertion of the cruciate ligaments. METHODS: Radiodense markers were inserted into bones at the attachment sites of the cruciate ligaments in sixteen cadaveric stifles of adult dogs. Each stifle was then mounted in a testing apparatus.

Authors: Chailleux N, Lussier B, De Guise J, Chevalier Y, Hagemeister N.
Journal: Can J Vet Res

The objective of this study was to determine the immediate postoperative effect of 2 corrective operations for cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifle by evaluating 3-dimensional (3-D) stifle kinematics. Ten hindlimbs from large-breed canine cadavers were used.

Authors: Langley-Hobbs SJ, Brown G, Matis U.
Journal: VCOT

Traumatic patellar fracture in cats mainly occurred in male neutered cats with an average age of four years, six months and a mean weight of 4.8 kg. Patellar fractures were concurrent with long bone fractures and cruciate ligament rupture or occurred after gunshot. The patella luxated medially or laterally in four cats. Fracture fragments were usually small, either from the proximal pole (base) or distal pole (apex) or longitudinal fragments. Treatment was by fragment excision when the fragment was small or by reconstruction with pins and wires when fractures were comminuted.

Authors: DAVID I. DISMUKES, DVM 1 , DEREK B. FOX, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS 1 , JAMES L. TOMLINSON, DVM, MVSc, Diplomate ACVS 1 , JAMES L. COOK, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS 1 , and STEPHANIE C. ESSMAN, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVR 1
Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT
Objectives—To report a method for radiographic determination of the mechanical axis of the canine pelvic limb and its relationship to the joints and bone axes. To report reference ranges for the relationships between the axes of the pelvic limb and for joint position relative to the pelvic limb axis.
Study Design—Cadaveric radiographic anatomic study.
Animals—Pelvic limbs (n=101) from normal midsized to large breed dogs; tibiae (n=105) from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (previous study).

Category: Deformity - Imaging - Knee
Authors: Ragetly CA, Griffon DJ, Thomas JE, Mostafa AA, Schaeffer DJ, Pijanowski GJ, Hsiao-Wecksler ET.
Journal: AJVR

OBJECTIVE: To determine mass, center of mass (COM), and moment of inertia (ie, body segment parameters [BSPs]) of hind limb segments by use of a noninvasive method based on computerized tomography (CT) in Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease and to provide regression equations to estimate BSPs of normal, CCL-deficient, and contralateral hind limbs. ANIMALS: 14 clinically normal and 10 CCL-deficient Labrador Retrievers. PROCEDURES: Bone, muscle, and fat areas were identified via CT.