Knee

Authors: Franklin AD, Havlicek M, Krockenberger MB.
Journal: VCOT

A seven-year-old Labrador Retriever dog was presented with the complaint of chronic left hindlimb lameness. A diagnosis of partial rupture of the left cranial cruciate ligament with concurrent cranio-medial synovial cyst formation was made. This cystic structure was assumed to be communicating with the stifle joint. There was no evidence of a meniscal tear, but superficial fibrillation of the axial border was present. Surgical excision of the cyst with concurrent treatment of the cranial cruciate ligament deficiency by tibial tuberosity advancement was performed with a successful outcome.

Authors: Comerford EJ, Smith K, Hayashi K.
Journal: VCOT

Cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) is the most common cause of hindlimb lameness in the dog, being associated with and eventually leading to stifle osteoarthritis. Canine cranial cruciate ligament disease is a gradual degeneration of the ligament extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to ligament rupture. The aetiopathogenesis of this condition is still poorly understood but several risk factors have been identified such as breed, bodyweight, gender and conformation.

Authors: R. Yeadon (1), N. Fitzpatrick (1), M. P. Kowaleski (2)
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To report surgical technique, morphometric effects and clinical outcomes for tibial tuberosity transposition-advancement (TTTA), sulcoplasty and para-patellar fascial imbrication for management of concomitant medial patellar luxation (MPL) and cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in 32 dogs. Study design: Case series. Methods: A previous technique for tibial tuberosity advancement was modified to incorporate lateral and distal tibial tuberosity transposition.

Category: Knee
Authors: S. Etchepareborde (1), J. Mills (2), V. Busoni (3), L. Brunel (1), M. Balligand (1)
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To calculate the difference between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) along the tibial plateau axis and the advancement truly achieved in that direction when cage size has been determined using the method of Montavon and colleagues. To measure the effect of this difference on the final patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) in relation to the ideal 90°.

Category: Knee
Authors: P. Moak (1), G. Hosgood (2), E. Rowe (1), K. A. Lemke (1)
Journal: VCOT

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam when given by intra-articular (IA) and subcutaneous (SC) routes of administration for postoperative analgesia versus a placebo for dogs undergoing stifle surgery. Twenty-five dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, each with nine dogs, before surgical repair of twenty-seven stifles using a modified lateral retinacular imbrication technique. Group 1 dogs received IA administration of meloxicam and SC placebo. Group 2 dogs received IA placebo and SC meloxicam.

Authors: Hayashi K, Bhandal J, Rodriguez CO Jr, Kim SY, Entwistle R, Naydan D, Kapatkin A, Stover SM.
Journal: Vet Surg

Objective: To (1) determine the microanatomic vascular distribution in ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CCL) using specific vascular immunohistochemical techniques, and (2) compare vessel density between ruptured and intact canine CCL and between different areas of interest in ruptured CCL using histomorphometric analysis. Study Design: In vitro study. Animals: Dogs (n=41) admitted for surgical treatment of ruptured CCL and 19 dogs euthanatized for nonorthopedic conditions.

Authors: Hayashi K, Bhandal J, Kim SY, Rodriguez CO Jr, Entwistle R, Naydan D, Kapatkin A, Stover SM.
Journal: Vet Surg

Objectives: To (1) describe vascular distribution in the grossly intact canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) using immunohistochemical techniques specific to 2 components of blood vessels (factor VIII for endothelial cells, laminin for basement membrane); and (2) compare the vascularity in different areas of interest (craniomedial versus caudolateral bands; core versus epiligamentous regions; and proximal versus middle versus distal portions) in the intact normal canine CCL. Study Design: In vitro study.

Authors: Bright SR, May C.
Journal: JSAP

A six-year-old, female, neutered, whippet was presented for evaluation of a severe, sudden-onset right pelvic limb lameness. The extensor mechanism of the right stifle was intact and there was periarticular swelling in the right stifle. Radiography showed a fracture of the distal pole of the patella. The distal fragment was approximately 25% of the patellar length and the fracture was deemed non-reconstructable. Fracture fragment removal was performed arthroscopically, which led to an excellent clinical outcome.

Authors: S. Etchepareborde (1), N. Barthelemy (1), J. Mills (2), F. Pascon (3), G. R. Ragetly (4), M. Balligand (1)
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated three modified techniques of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Loads to failure were calculated for each technique. Methods: A 9 mm TTA procedure was performed in the tibiae of dogs weighing between 32 and 38 kg. In group 1 (n = 12), the distal part of the tibial crest was left attached to the tibia by the cranial cortex, and a figure-of-eight wire was added for stabilisation. In group 2 (n = 12), the tibial crest was left attached but no additional device was used for stabilisation.

Category: Knee
Authors: Guerrero TG, Makara MA, Katiofsky K, Fluckiger MA, Morgan JP, Haessig M, Montavon PM.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare healing, with and without the use of bone graft, of the gap created during tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study and case series. Animals: Dogs treated with TTA (n=67). METHODS: Prospective study: Mediolateral radiographic projections (6 weeks and 4 months) after TTA without use of bone graft (group I, n=14) were compared with radiographs of consecutive TTA in which the gap was filled with autologous cancellous bone graft (group II, n=14). Two scoring techniques (A, B) were used.

Category: Knee