Imaging

Authors: Draffan D, Carrera I, Carmichael S, Heller J, Hammond G.
Journal: VCOT

Trochlear notch sclerosis (TNS) as assessed by radiography has been shown to be increased in elbow dysplasia (ED) associated medial coronoid process disease (MCD). The aims of this study were to investigate whether two defined radiographic tests evaluating TNS would increase the sensitivity of detecting osteoarthritis secondary to MCD, and to assess whether there was a correlation between increasing TNS with severity of MCD. Sixty-one dogs with MCD (121 elbows) were selected from the imaging database. The controls were nine cadavers (18 disease-free elbows).

Authors: Comhaire FH, Criel AC, Dassy CA, Guévar PG, Snaps FR.
Journal: ajvr

Objective-To evaluate the precision, reproducibility, and clinical usefulness of measuring the Norberg angle (NA) by means of a computerized system of image analysis. Sample Population-1,182 consecutive radiographs of hip joints of various breeds of dogs assessed for hip dysplasia and 72 radiographs of hip joints of German Shepherd Dogs. Procedures-Radiographs were assessed by a panel of 4 experts in consensus, and NAs were measured by means of a computerized system.

Category: Hip - Imaging
Authors: Seyrek-Intas D, Michele U, Tacke S, Kramer M, Gerwing M.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FMCP) in dogs. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-102 dogs (112 elbow joints) suspected to have FMCP. Procedures-Elbows were examined ultrasonographically prior to surgery for evidence of fragmentation, fissuring, or deformation of the medial coronoid process; thickening of the joint capsule; joint effusion; and secondary new bone formation. Results were compared with intraoperative findings.

Authors: Gabriel P, Pfeil A, Ludewig E, Böttcher P, Oechtering G.
Journal: JSAP

Clinical signs, radiological, arthroscopic findings and magnetic resonance imaging features of a male German shepherd dog with incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle are described. The dog showed recurrent left forelimb lameness and pain on elbow palpation. In routine radiographs, the lesion was obscured. In oblique radiographs, a radiolucent line was detected, and magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated a defect in the humeral condyle. However, arthroscopy showed no changes or discontinuity of the humeral cartilage.

Authors: Agnello KA, Puchalski SM, Wisner ER, Schulz KS, Kapatkin AS.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

This study was performed to determine the effect of shoulder extension and flexion, imaging plane, and intraarticular paramagnetic contrast medium administration on the visibility of soft tissue structures surrounding the canine shoulder joint using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Eight dogs without shoulder disease were imaged using a 1.5 T MR scanner. In all dogs, T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes, and a sagittal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence were acquired with the shoulder joint in extension.

Category: Imaging - Shoulder
Authors: Jones JC, Davies SE, Werre SR, Shackelford KL.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To measure effects of dog position on L7-S1 intervertebral foraminal area and lumbosacral (LS) angle by means of computed tomography (CT) and determine whether changes in values between positions are associated with clinical signs in dogs with LS disease. Animals-86 dogs examined via a positional CT protocol that included flexion and extension scans of L7-S1. Procedures-Archived CT images and medical records were reviewed. Included dogs had good-quality flexion and extension CT scans of L7-S1 and no evidence of fractures, neoplasia, or previous LS surgery.

Category: Imaging - Spine
Authors: SEAN E. MURPHY, DVM, Diplomate ACVS 1 , ELIZABETH A. BALLEGEER, DVM 1 , LISA J. FORREST, VMD, Diplomate ACVR 1 , and SUSAN L. SCHAEFER, MS, DVM, Diplomate ACVS 1
Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT Objective—To evaluate the diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with a reference standard, arthroscopic and/or open surgery, in dogs with soft tissue shoulder pathology. Study Design—Retrospective study. Animals—Dogs (n=21). Methods—Magnetic resonance (MR) images were retrospectively evaluated in 21 dogs that had surgically identified soft tissue shoulder pathology.

Authors: DAVID I. DISMUKES, DVM 1 , DEREK B. FOX, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS 1 , JAMES L. TOMLINSON, DVM, MVSc, Diplomate ACVS 1 , JAMES L. COOK, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS 1 , and STEPHANIE C. ESSMAN, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVR 1
Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT
Objectives—To report a method for radiographic determination of the mechanical axis of the canine pelvic limb and its relationship to the joints and bone axes. To report reference ranges for the relationships between the axes of the pelvic limb and for joint position relative to the pelvic limb axis.
Study Design—Cadaveric radiographic anatomic study.
Animals—Pelvic limbs (n=101) from normal midsized to large breed dogs; tibiae (n=105) from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (previous study).

Category: Deformity - Imaging - Knee
Authors: Armbrust LJ, Ostmeyer M, McMurphy R.
Journal: Vet Rad Ultrasound

The purpose of this study was to determine the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of bone marrow in the pelvis and femur of normal, young dogs. Six greyhounds were imaged at 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age. Sagittal images of the femur and dorsal images of the pelvis were obtained with T1-weighted, fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted, and short tau (T1) inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. On T1-weighted images areas with high signal intensity, similar to fat, included the femoral heads, mid-diaphysis of the femur, femoral condyles, and the body of the ilium.

Category: Hip - Imaging
Authors: Cannon MS, Puchalski SM.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

The aim of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the iliopsoas muscle and related landmarks. Hind limbs of five dog cadavers with no history of lameness were evaluated. The origin and mid-body of the psoas major and the common insertion of the iliacus and psoas major on the lesser trochanter of the femur were identified and evaluated. New methylene blue was injected under ultrasonographic guidance at the three sites. Dissection was performed to confirm placement of the dye.