Distal Extremities

Authors: Choate C, Lewis D, Kim S, Sereda C.
Journal: Aust Vet J

Background   Hinged circular external skeletal fixator constructs are used to perform sequential correction of angular limb deformities, often with resultant limb segment lengthening, via distraction osteogenesis. Although there are several reports describing the use of these constructs for correction of antebrachial deformities in dogs, there is little information regarding their use on other limb segments. This report describes the use of hinged circular fixator constructs for the correction of acquired crural deformities in three skeletally immature dogs.

Authors: Petazzoni M, Nicetto T, Vezzoni A, Piras A, Palmer R.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To describe the surgical treatment of pes varus in Dachshund dogs by medial opening wedge osteotomy of the distal tibia stabilized with a locking plate system and to retrospectively report the clinical and radiographic outcomes. Materials and methods: Lameness in nine limbs of seven Dachshund dogs with pes varus deformity was treated with corrective osteotomy at or near the centre of rotation of angulation as defined by the intersection of the proximal and distal mechanical axes determined on caudo-cranial radiographs.

Authors: Piras LA, Peirone B, Fox D.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To quantify the effect of ante- brachial torsion on the miscalculation of radial valgus measured radiographically and to assess a radiographic positioning method used to mitigate torsion-associated artifactual miscalculation of concurrent frontal plane angulation. Methods: A canine cadaveric forelimb was used to model different combinations of valgus and external torsion. Valgus was induced in the limb in increments of five degrees, radiographic images were taken at each increment, and the observed radiographic valgus was measured.

Authors: Nakladal B, Vom Hagen F, Olias P, Brunnberg L.
Journal: VCOT

This report describes a case of intraosseous lipoma in a two-year-old Leonberger. The dog was presented with a history of ten month lameness in the right forelimb. A massive swelling from the elbow to the carpus of the right forelimb was visible. Treatment with anti-inflammatory medications by the local veterinarian for ten months was unsuccessful and the dog was presented at the university clinic. Radiographic images showed that the diaphyseal part of the ulna was affected by extensive cyst-like osteolysis. Furthermore, the distal metaphysis of the radius showed cyst-like osteolytic changes.

Authors: Hittmair KM, Groessl V, Mayrhofer E.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus muscle causes chronic front limb lameness in dogs. The lesion, similar to de Quervain's tenosynovitis in people, is caused by repetitive movements of the carpus. Thirty dogs with front limb lameness, painful carpal flexion, and a firm soft tissue swelling medial to the carpus were examined prospectively. Seven dogs had bilateral abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis.

Authors: Bergh MS, Piras A, Samii VF, Weisbrode SE, Johnson KA.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To evaluate and compare bone modeling and remodeling in fractured and non-fractured central tarsal bones (CTBs) of racing Greyhounds. Sample-Paired cadaveric tarsi from 6 euthanized racing Greyhounds with right CTB fractures and 6 racing Greyhounds with other nontarsal injuries. Procedures-CTBs were dissected and fractured CTBs were reconstructed. Central tarsal bones were evaluated through standard and nonscreen high-detail radiography, computed tomography, and histologic examination.

Authors: Macrì F, Lanteri G, Rapisarda G, Marino F.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat. The macroscopic and radiographic features of aphalangia are described in a 2-month-old male kitten showing a shortened limb that ended, at the level of the carpus, in a stump without digits. A nail was present at the level of the first phalanx and on the palmar surface only two footpads were present. The radiographs showed an absence of phalanges. The first metacarpal and the proximal and distal phalanges of digit 1 were present. The deformed metacarpal bones were reduced in length; the carpal bones were incompletely ossified.

Authors: Goldfinch N, Argyle D.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Practical relevance Feline 'lung-digit syndrome' describes an unusual pattern of metastasis that is seen with various types of primary lung tumours, particularly bronchial and bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma. Tumour metastases are found at atypical sites, notably the distal phalanges of the limbs; the weightbearing digits are most frequently affected, and multiple-digit and multiple-limb involvement is common. Often primary lung tumours in cats are not detected because of clinical signs referable to the primary tumour; rather, many cases present with signs referable to distant metastases.

Authors: Little JP, Horn TJ, Marcellin-Little DJ, Harrysson OL, West HA.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To design and fabricate fiberglass-reinforced composite (FRC) replicas of a canine radius and compare their mechanical properties with those of radii from dog cadavers. Sample-Replicas based on 3 FRC formulations with 33%, 50%, or 60% short-length discontinuous fiberglass by weight (7 replicas/group) and 5 radii from large (> 30-kg) dog cadavers. Procedures-Bones and FRC replicas underwent nondestructive mechanical testing including 4-point bending, axial loading, and torsion and destructive testing to failure during 4-point bending.

Authors: Boston SE, Barry M, O'Sullivan ML.
Journal: Can Vet J

A 7-year-old, spayed, female great Pyrenees with a primary tumor of the distal radius was treated with placement of a bone plate that spanned the tumor. The goals were palliation and prevention of pathologic fracture. This is an option for select patients with osteosarcoma.