Distal Extremities

Authors: Maki LC, Kim SE, Winter MD, Kow KY, Conway JA, Lewis DD.
Journal: JAVMA

Case Description-A 10-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier and a 7-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog were evaluated because of acute, progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness associated with signs of pain and turgid antebrachial swelling. Clinical Findings-For either dog, there were no salient pathological or diagnostic imaging abnormalities. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was confirmed on the basis of high caudal antebrachial compartmental pressure in the affected forelimb. Treatment and Outcome-Both dogs underwent surgical exploration of the affected forelimb.

Authors: Coggeshall JD, Reese DJ, Kim SE, Pozzi A.
Journal: JSAP

Four skeletally immature, small breed dogs (five elbows) with elbow incongruency were evaluated for forelimb lameness. Findings on clinical examination included pain, effusion and decreased range of motion of the affected elbow. Radiography, computed tomography and arthroscopy demonstrated elbow incongruency in all dogs. Fragmented medial coronoid process was diagnosed arthroscopically in three dogs (four elbows). Arthroscopic subtotal coronoidectomy was performed in all cases of fragmented medial coronoid process.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, van Caelenberg A, van Bree H, van Ryssen B.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Flexor enthesopathy is an important differential diagnosis for elbow lameness in dogs. The disorder can be a primary cause of elbow lameness or concomitant with other elbow pathology. Since treatment differs for primary and concomitant forms of flexor enthesopathy, a noninvasive method for distinguishing between them is needed.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, Kromhout K, van Bree H, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Flexor enthesopathy is a recently recognized elbow disorder in dogs and considered to be an important differential diagnosis for elbow lameness. Primary and concomitant forms of the disease have been previously described and treatments differ for the two forms. The goal of this prospective study was to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for dogs with primary flexor enthesopathy (n = 17), concomitant flexor enthesopathy (n = 23), elbow dysplasia alone (n = 13), and normal elbows (n = 7). Each elbow joint underwent MRI using the same low-field scanner.

Authors: Bitton E, Joseph R, Portman L, Segev G, Meiner Y, Shipov A, Milgram J.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the direction and magnitude of the rotation of the radius relative to the ulna during extension of the carpus and to describe the effect of carpal extension on internal and external rotation of the radius relative to the ulna.
STUDY DESIGN:
In vitro experiment.
ANIMALS:
Cadaveric canine thoracic limbs (n = 11).
METHODS:

Authors: Renwick A, Scurrell E.
Journal: VCOT

This report describes limb-sparing surgery in a 35 kg, six-year-old Hungarian Vizsla with a distal radial lytic bone lesion. Preoperative biopsy had suggested a bone cyst, however histopathology on the excised bone segment was indicative of an osteosarcoma. Following excision of the tumour, the bone defect was filled with a composite bone graft and stabilized with a custom-made dorsal 3.5/2.7 mm pancarpal arthrodesis plate and an orthogonally positioned medial 2.7 mm compression plate. This technique has not previously been described for limb-sparing procedures.

Authors: Cantatore M, Renwick MG, Yool DA.
Journal: VCOT

A six-year-old Labrador Retriever was presented for management of a 2 x 2 cm cutaneous mass over the dorsal aspect of the carpus. A fine needle aspirate performed by the referring veterinarian was consistent with a mast cell tumour. The ipsilateral prescapular lymph node was enlarged. Preoperative staging did not reveal any evidence of metastasis. Wide excision of the mass and prescapular lymphadenectomy were performed.

Authors: Uhl JM, Kapatkin AS, Garcia TC, Stover SM.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To compare a medially applied 2.7 mm locking compression plate (LCP) to a cranially applied 3.5 mm LCP in a cadaveric distal radial fracture gap model.
STUDY DESIGN:
In vitro mechanical testing of paired cadaveric limbs
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Paired radii (n = 8) stabilized with either a 2.7 mm LCP medially or a 3.5 mm LCP cranially.
METHODS:

Authors: Guilliard MJ.
Journal: JSAP

OBJECTIVE:
To assess (2006 to 2012) conservative management for treatment of fractures of the third metatarsal bone (MT3) in racing greyhounds.
METHODS:
All racing greyhounds with MT3 fractures seen prospectively between 2006 and 2012 were included. Fracture morphology, type of conservative management, outcome and the time to a return to racing were recorded. Outcome was assessed either by communication with the trainer or by accessing the website of the Greyhound Board of Great Britain to find the complete racing history of the dog.
RESULTS:

Authors: Tong K, Guiot LP.
Journal: VCOT

A 25-year-old female mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx - a primate and part of the Old World monkey group) was presented with a mildly comminuted, diaphyseal, radial fracture associated with a transverse ulnar fracture. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis techniques were used to achieve fixation of both the radial and the ulnar fractures. First, closed fracture reduction was achieved with a distraction frame consisting of a motorized circular external skeletal fixator.