Distal Extremities

Authors: Rørvik AM, Teige J, Ottesen N, Lingaas F.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To determine clinical, radiographic, and pathologic abnormalities in dogs with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-19 dogs with MED from 10 litters. Procedures-The diagnosis was made on the basis of radiographs of the shoulder region and vertebral column. Ten dogs underwent necropsy. Results-There were 11 Hygenhund, 6 Dunker, 1 Golden Retriever, and 1 English Pointer. Most dogs were examined because of lameness that developed at 5 to 8 months of age.

Authors: Nelligan MR, Wheeler JL, Lewis DD, Thompson MS.
Journal: Aust Vet J

An 8-month-old castrated male Saint Bernard was evaluated for bilateral hind limb lameness. Lameness was ascribed to bilateral metatarsal rotational abnormalities on the basis of the physical examination and radiographic evaluations. Staged, bilateral deformity correction and tarsometatarsal arthrodeses were performed using circular external skeletal fixators. The dog's gait improved following surgery and the fixators were removed 3 (left hind paw) and 4 (right hind paw) months following surgery.

Authors: Arnott JL, Bailey R, Shields A, Bennett D.
Journal: VCOT

Several techniques have been described for canine pancarpal arthrodesis (PCA) with dorsal plating becoming the most accepted method for ease of placement despite the proposed biomechanical disadvantages. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical effects of the addition of crossed K-wires to a standard 2.7/3.5 mm hybrid PCA plate. A 2.7/3.5 mm hybrid PCA plate, alone and combined with crossed K-wires were tested. Six pairs of cadaver forelimbs were collected from medium-sized dogs with an average weight of 24 kg by elbow disarticulation.

Authors: Drygas KA, Taylor R, Sidebotham CG, Hugate RR, McAlexander H.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE: To report surgical planning, technique, and long-term outcome of custom transcutaneous tibial implants used to restore ambulation after bilateral pelvic limb amputation in a dog. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: A 4-year-old, 25.5 kg, female spayed, Siberian Husky. METHODS: Computed tomographic scans of the pelvic limbs were used to build sterolithographic models of the remaining tibia after bilateral amputation of the distal aspect of the tibiae. The sterolithographic models facilitated fabrication of implants that would replace the missing distal segments of the tibiae.

Authors: Daniel A, Read RA, Cake MA.
Journal: Am J Vet Res.

OBJECTIVE: To apply a novel technique and use the number and size (diameter and mean area) of vascular foramina to estimate potential blood supply in the metacarpophalangeal bones of dogs. ANIMALS: 28 Greyhounds. PROCEDURES: The forelimb sesamoid bones of 23 dogs were obtained after dogs were euthanized. Bones were isolated and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The number, diameter, and area of vascular foramina were determined by image analysis. Arterial distribution was assessed by use of resin injection in the sesamoid bones of 5 additional dogs.

Authors: Stefanello D, Romussi S, Signorelli P, Caniatti M, DiGiancamillo M, Roccabianca P, Avallone G.
Journal: JAAHA

An 18-month-old, female Cane Corso dog was presented with a suspected primary tumor of the tibia. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the tibia were highly suggestive of a primary bone neoplasm. A diagnosis of malignant melanoma was made by cytology. Total body survey radiographs, CT scan of the thorax, and abdominal ultrasound excluded the presence of neoplastic lesions other than in the tibia. Limb amputation was performed.

Authors: J. L. Arnott, A. W. Philbey, D. Bennett
Journal: VCOT

A four-month-old German Shepherd Dog (GSD) was admitted with bilateral non-weight bearing hindlimb lameness and pyrexia. A diagnosis of bilateral distal femoral fractures secondary to metaphyseal osteopathy was made on the basis of clinical signs, radiography and biopsy. The dog returned to normal function following conservative management. As far as the authors are aware there are no previous reports of pathological fractures secondary to this condition.

Authors: Barrand KR, Cornillie PK.
Journal: JSAP

Adactyly (terminal transverse hemimelia) is a rare condition in the cat. The clinical and radiographic findings in a one-year-old cat with bilateral hindlimb adactyly are described. The cat was treated conservatively and appeared to cope well with its deformity.

Authors: Bernard F, Furneaux R, Adrega Da Silva C, Bardet JF.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol.

rhBMP-2 solution on a collagen sponge was placed along the diaphysis of an atrophicradius, which had a history of recurring fractures. Two months after rhBMP-2 treatment, new mineralized bone was present, which significantly increased the diameter of the radius and allowed the removal of the external skeletal fixator (ESF). Due to carpo-metacarpal joint compromise, a pancarpal arthrodesis was performed seven months later. At follow-up evaluation two years later the dog was only very mildly lame.