Authors: Leslie Montgomery, Sarah B. Elliott and H. Steve Adair
Journal: Veterinary Surgery



To (1) determine the temperature change in equine tendon and muscle during therapeutic ultrasound and (2) develop guidelines for treating horses for muscular or tendinous injury using therapeutic ultrasound.

Study Design

Experimental, in vivo study.


Adult horses (n = 10).


Category: Equine - Tendon - Ultrasound
Authors: D. Carnicer, V. Coudry and J.-M. Denoix
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

The suspensory apparatus is composed of the third interosseous muscle (TIOM) or suspensory ligament, the proximal sesamoid bones, palmar ligament and distal sesamoidean ligaments (DSL). Of these structures, the suspensory ligament is the most frequently implicated in conditions seen in race and sport horses; nevertheless, DSL lesions are not rare and often associated with other injuries that can modify patient prognosis and management. Ultrasonography has been shown to be valuable in the assessment of DSL desmitis.

Category: Equine - Ligament - Ultrasound
Authors: Francesca Beccati, Heather J. Chalmers, Sara Dante, Eleonora Lotto and Marco Pepe
Journal: Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound

Osteochondrosis lesions commonly occur on the femoral trochlear ridges in horses and radiography and ultrasonography are routinely used to diagnose these lesions. However, poor correlation has been found between radiographic and arthroscopic findings of affected trochlear ridges. Interobserver agreement for ultrasonographic diagnoses and correlation between ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings have not been previously described.

Authors: V. Coudry and J.-M. Denoix
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

Ultrasonography is the technique of choice to identify and document tendon and ligament injuries and its interest in the diagnosis of pastern injuries has been largely demonstrated. Ultrasound examination is therefore part of routine examination in diagnostic work-up of lameness originating from the foot or pastern area. This paper describes the ultrasonographic technique and presents normal and abnormal ultrasound images of the palmar pastern. A comprehensive description of normal transverse and longitudinal ultrasound scans is made at 4 anatomical levels.

Category: Equine - Ultrasound
Authors: MS Hall, JR Vasey, JW Russell, T Russell
Journal: Australian Veterinary Journal

To evaluate the racing performance of horses that underwent ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of autologous bone marrow aspirate for treatment of selected forelimb suspensory ligament (body or branch) core lesions.
Retrospective cohort study of 13 Standardbred and 17 Thoroughbred race horses.
Autologous bone marrow aspirated from the sternebrae was injected, under ultrasound guidance, into suspensory ligament core lesions (body or branch). Racing records were reviewed for a comparison of performance before and after surgery.

Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: To evaluate intra- and interobserver variability in ultrasonographic measurements of the proximal aspect of the suspensory ligament (PSL) in the horse.

Hypothesis: A minimum difference of ≥20% is required to differentiate reliably between physiological and pathological alterations related to dimensions.

Category: Equine - Ligament - Ultrasound
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Ultrasonographic (US) abnormalities of the suspensory ligament branch (SLB) have been poorly investigated but can have considerable impact on market value and career path when encountered in athletic horses. There is a need for determination of the prevalence and relationship to clinical injury of these US abnormalities in the Thoroughbred (TB) racehorse.

Objectives: To establish the prevalence of, and the repeatability of an US grading system for, subclinical US abnormalities of the forelimb SLB in a population of UK TB flat racehorses.

Category: Equine - Ligament - Ultrasound
Authors: S.I. Docking, J. Daffy, H.T.M. van Schie, J.L. Cook
Journal: The Veterinary Journal

Investigations into the response of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the Thoroughbred horse to mechanical stimuli have been limited to in vitro cell culture studies focused primarily on gene expression of critical matrix proteins. It is uncertain how well in vitro outcomes translate to the tendon of the horse during exercise. The current study examined changes in tendon structure in response to maximal exercise using ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) to scan the SDFT prior to and after competitive racing.

Category: Equine - Tendon - Ultrasound
Authors: W. Schneeweiss, A. Puggioni and F. David
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal


Reasons for performing study: Diagnosis and treatment of pathologies involving synovial structures in the shoulder region are technically difficult. Ultrasound-guided (UG) injection techniques have been shown to be highly accurate, safe and reliable for various structures in human and equine patients.

Objectives: To develop easy-to-use and reliable UG injection techniques for the infraspinatus bursa (IB), bicipital bursa (BB) and scapulohumeral joint (SHJ) and to compare them with conventional ‘blind’ methods.

Authors: El-Sayed A.A. El-Shafaey, Gamal I.A. Karrouf, Adel E.I. Zaghloul
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Little is known about using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating the healing properties of superficial digital flexor tenorrhaphy in equines. The present study was designed to carry out in vivo comparative evaluation of normal and repaired superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in donkeys, based on MRI, ultrasonography, clinical and histopathological features.

Category: Equine - Imaging - MRI - Tendon - Ultrasound