Bone

Authors: K. A. Bubeck, J. Garcia-Lopez, L. S. Maranda
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Objectives: To compare heat generation and time to finish between a new step drill and sequential drilling in order to create a 6.2 mm pilot hole for insertion of a positive profile transfixation pin into the equine third metacarpal bone. Methods: Nine pairs of equine third metacarpal bones from cadavers of adult horses were used. Maximum temperature rise of the bone was measured continuously at the cis- and trans-cortices 1, 2 and 3 mm from the final pilot hole during creation of a 6.2 mm hole using a step drill and sequential drilling with 4.5, 5.5 and 6.2 mm drill bits.

Authors: Dakin, S.G.; Dyson, S.J.; Murray, R.C.; Newton, R.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: There are currently few long-term follow-up data relating to recovery from injury of a collateral ligament (CL) of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and limited information about the effect of associated osseous injury on prognosis.

Objectives: To describe long-term follow-up results for horses with CL injury, with and without associated osseous injury; and to determine the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECSWT) or radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) on outcome.

Category: Bone - Equine - Ligament - MRI
Authors: Dakin, S.G.; Dyson, S.J.; Murray, R.C.; Tranquille, C.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Osseous abnormalities associated with collateral ligament (CL) injury of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint have been documented using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but there is currently limited information about the frequency of osseous pathology associated with CL injury.

Category: Bone - Equine - Ligament - MRI
Authors: Vallance, S.A.; Lumsden, J.M.; O'Sullivan, C.B.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

No case series exists in the literature describing scapula stress fractures. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical findings, diagnostic images and outcome of 8 horses diagnosed with scapula stress fractures.

Scapula stress fractures were seen in Thoroughbred racehorses displaying acute moderate forelimb lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy identified the mid-distal scapula spine and/or scapula supraspinous fossa as predilection sites. Conservative management resulted in a good prognosis for return to racing, but stress fracture recurrence may be seen.

Category: Bone - Equine - Traumatology
Authors: Jennifer M. Newquist, DVM; Gary M. Baxter, VMD, MS, DACVS
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To determine whether high plasma fibrinogen concentration (≥ 900 mg/dL) is a valid indicator of physeal or epiphyseal osteomyelitis in foals.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—17 foals with physeal or epiphyseal osteomyelitis with or without septic arthritis, 17 foals with septic arthritis alone, 20 foals with non–Rhodococcus equi pneumonia, and 22 healthy foals.

Category: Bone - Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Laura J. M. Hirvinen, DVM; Alan S. Litsky, MD, ScD; Valerie F. Samii, DVM; Steven E. Weisbrode, VMD, PhD; Alicia L. Bertone, DVM, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To compare biomechanical strength, interface quality, and effects of bone healing in bone-implant interfaces that were untreated or treated with calcium phosphate cement (Ca-cement), magnesium phosphate cement (Mg-cement), or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Authors: Brama, P.A.J.; Firth, E.C.; van Weeren, P.R.; Tuukkanen, J.; Holopainen, J.; Helminen, H.J.; Hyttinen, M.M.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Subchondral bone provides structural support to overlying articular cartilage and plays an important biomechanical role in osteochondral diseases. Mechanical features of bone correlate strongly with bone mineral density, which is directed by the loading conditions to which the tissue is subjected.

Objective: To investigate the influence of physical activity levels on subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) in foals during early development.

Category: Bone - Equine
Authors: David D. Frisbie, DVM, PhD; Christopher E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To assess the clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA).

Animals—Twenty-four 2- to 3-year-old horses without evidence of lameness.

Category: Bone - Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Jackson, B.F.; Dyson, P.K.; Lonnell, C.; Verheyen, K.L.P.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Price, J.S.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

The aim of this study was to determine whether bone biomarkers (osteocalcin, PICP, ICTP and CTX-I) could be used to identify 2- and 3-year-olds at increased risk of fracture in the subsequent flat racing season. It was concluded that these bone biomarkers cannot be used to identify 2- and 3-year-olds that sustain a fracture. Whether bone biomarkers have better predictive value in older horses or when measured serially in the same animal remains to be determined.

Category: Bone - Equine - Traumatology
Authors: Barr, E.D.; Pinchbeck, G.L.; Clegg, P.D.; Boyde, A.; Riggs, C.M.
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Thoroughbred racehorses are commonly affected by subchondral bone injury, but the exact prevalence and the distribution of palmar/plantar osteochondral disease (POD) lesions are unknown. The relationship between pathologies has not been elucidated, although it is widely accepted that POD is a manifestation of traumatic overload arthrosis.