Objective: To improve the accuracy of drilling during the repair of sacroiliac luxations (SILs) with a 3D-printed patient-specific drill guide (3D-GDT) compared to free-hand drilling technique (FHDT).
Study design: Blinded, randomized, prospective ex vivo study.
Sample population: Sixteen canine cadavers (20-25 kg).
Methods: Dorsal, bilateral SILs were created. Pelvic CT was performed pre- and post-drilling. The FHDT was drilled followed by 3D-GDT. CT and 3D measurements of craniocaudal and dorsoventral angles were compared between FHDT and 3D-GDT, as well as deviations of entry and exit points relative to optimal trajectory.
Results: Mean craniocaudal and dorsoventral angles for both CT- and 3D-measured 3D-GDT (CT 4.2 ± 3.9° and 3.9 ± 3.2°, respectively; 3D 5.1 ± 5.1° and 2.8 ± 2.3°, respectively p = .0006) were lower compared to FHDT (CT 11.8 ± 4.0°, p < .0001 and 8.9 ± 6.1°, p = .01; 3D 12.4 ± 5.9°, p = .0006 and 5.3 ± 5.24°, p = .05). Entry dorsoventral and end craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and 3D linear deviations were reduced with 3D-GDT. Sacral corridor disruption was present in 20% (3/15) for FHDT compared with 0% for 3D-GDT. CT and 3D analyses were in strong agreement (r = 0.77).
Conclusion: Deviations of drill trajectories were minimized relative to optimal trajectories with 3D-GDT compared to FHDT in the dorsoventral and craniocaudal planes.
Clinical significance: The use of 3D-GDT improves accuracy of sacral drilling compared with FHDT in canine cadavers. These results justify further evaluation in a clinical, prospective study.